央行,央行纠正IMF报告偏颇 这家英媒却渲染中国危机

作者: 发布时间:2017-12-07 17:18:58  来源: [手机访问]
导读: 12月6日,国际货币基金组织(IMF)发布《2017年中国金融稳定评估报告》,称“中国金融体系日趋复杂,已经承受了威胁金融稳定的风险。” 对此,中国央行于7日早间

12月6日,国际货币基金组织(IMF)发布《2017年中国金融稳定评估报告》,称“中国金融体系日趋复杂,已经承受了威胁金融稳定的风险。”

央行纠正IMF报告偏颇 这家英媒却渲染中国危机

对此,中国央行于7日早间在其官网发布回应。

央行在肯定IMF报告客观、中立的情况下,对压力测试的相关表述提出质疑,认为未能全面反映测试结果,“在IMF按国际通行做法针对中国开展的银行业压力测试中,极端情景假设下,占参试银行总资产65%以上的银行的核心一级资本充足率仍能保持在7%以上,我国金融体系表现出较强的风险抵御能力。”

同时,央行针对IMF所提出的“银行资产质量压力”也作出了澄清,称“年来我国银行业加大不良贷款核销和处置力度,是不良贷款率保持在较低水平的重要原因。2017年以来,包括国企在内企业利润大幅回升,许多地方政府债务也对应未来有现金收益的资产,不良贷款率被低估的余地不大。

央行纠正IMF报告偏颇 这家英媒却渲染中国危机

明明IMF报告对中国经济增长、金融体系健全以及监管措施发力都提出了表扬,只是指出中国目前金融系统存在着一些风险点,并提出了一些建议。央行在回应中除了勘正IMF报告中的两处误解,并评价IMF报告“客观、中肯”,会在今后的改革中借鉴IMF所推荐的措施。

但依然有想要“搞事情”的外媒大肆鼓吹“中国金融崩溃论”。

央行纠正IMF报告偏颇 这家英媒却渲染中国危机

英国《卫报》在7日发表的文章中称,“IMF的报告发现,从国际标准来看,中国信贷水平已经非常高了,尤其是个人信贷规模,与此伴随而来的,是将会是极大的财务困境可能性”,“在2008年金融危机之后,中国是世界非常重要的增长引擎,但这些增长在很大程度上是倚赖于公共支出的巨额投入和信贷规模的爆发式增长”,“IMF的报告指出了中国金融系统内的各个部分都出现了‘紧张’情况”,“信贷规模大幅扩大,导致企业债台高筑,家庭负债增加”,“目前中国信贷膨胀,与十年前金融危机爆发前的美国有十分相似之处,目前风险已经从银行蔓延至整个金融系统”。

除了夸大IMF报告的措辞以外,对于IMF报告对中国的积极评价,《卫报》所发文章全文未提

央行纠正IMF报告偏颇 这家英媒却渲染中国危机

中国央行行长周小川

据央行介绍,IMF和世界银行所公布的中国“金融部门评估规划”更新评估核心成果报告包括《中国金融体系稳定评估报告》、《中国金融部门评估报告》、《关于中国遵守详细评估报告》、《关于中国遵守详细评估报告》和《关于中国遵守详细评估报告》。

而“金融部门评估规划”是IMF和世界银行于1999年联合推出的项目(世界银行仅对发展中国家和新兴经济体进行评估),主要目的是评估成员经济体的金融体系稳健性、监管框架质量以及金融体系对经济增长和发展的促进作用。

2009-2011年,我国完成首次“金融部门评估规划”。根据IMF对系统重要性经济体每五年开展一次更新评估的要求,2015年10月,IMF和世界银行启动对我国的“金融部门评估规划”更新评估。两年多来,央行及国务院多部委与评估团密切配合,使得本次更新评估顺利完成。

央行纠正IMF报告偏颇 这家英媒却渲染中国危机

如何评价中国金融体系?IMF:中国经济保持了令人瞩目的快速增长、中国的金融资产接近了总GDP的470%、中国拥有世界上最大规模的银行和第二大规模的股市

央行在回应中称,在中国“金融部门评估规划”更新评估成果报告中,国际货币基金组织和世界银行充分肯定了我国近年来经济和金融体系改革发展的成果。报告指出,自首次“金融部门评估规划”以来,中国经济一直保持令人瞩目的快速增长。

金融体系为经济增长和降低贫困率提供了有力支持,金融业特别是资本市场不断深化发展,金融服务可得性和质量不断提升,普惠金融取得重大进展。

管理部门持续推进金融改革,在升级货币政策和宏观审慎政策框架、建立存款保险体系、落实巴塞尔协议Ⅲ监管框架、加强证券投资者保护及完善资本市场基础性制度、建立保险业增长的稳健性框架等方面成效显著。

报告展现了对我国银行、证券和保险业遵守国际标准和准则的情况进行全面评估的结论,认为我国金融监管高度符合国际标准。此外,报告对我国在完善反洗钱和反恐怖融资法律和监管框架方面的进展也给予了高度评价。

IMF在评估报告中指出,中国目前正在开展必要但漫长的经济和金融转型。尽管金融体系促进了经济的快速增长,但其规模和复杂性迅速提高,已经成为世界最大的金融体系之一,金融资产接近GDP的470%。

央行纠正IMF报告偏颇 这家英媒却渲染中国危机

IMF指出的风险:持续信贷扩张、金融体系复杂性加剧、广泛的隐性担保

对于潜在的风险,IMF在报告中做了三点提示:

“首先,旨在支持就业和增长的货币和财政政策近年来呈扩张性。”IMF称,这致使无生存力的企业继续经营,在一定程度上侵蚀了金融的稳定性。结果是,“加快GDP增长所需的信贷引起了大幅信贷扩张,导致企业债务高企,居民部门债务迅速增加(尽管起点较低)”。

“其次,对高收益投资产品的需求以及对银行部门监管的加强导致出现监管套利,日益复杂的投资渠道不断增长。”结果是,给监管带来巨大挑战。

“第三,普遍的隐性担保加剧了这些风险。”结果是,政府和金融机构承担了过度的风险。

此外,报告指出,一方面要采取政策促进经济和金融转型,另一方面要缓解调整带来的影响(主要是维持GDP增长和保护就业),这二者之间的矛盾尚未得到解决,可能造成金融稳定风险;金融科技显著扩大,促进了金融包容性,建议中国政府进一步发展数字金融监管框架,实现创新与安全性和稳健性之间的平衡。

央行纠正IMF报告偏颇 这家英媒却渲染中国危机

IMF认为可以改进的方面:系统性风险防控、跨部门监管合作、银行资产水平、流动性缓冲、危机处理能力

央行在回应中还援引报告说法称,尽管金融体系面临着一定的潜在风险,但中国当局高度重视并已着手采取有力措施防控风险、完善微观审慎监管,并通过设立国务院金融稳定发展委员会加强宏观审慎管理和系统性金融风险防范。

报告建议中国加强金融集团监管,从前瞻性角度进一步加强银行资本监管,确保相似产品受到一致性监管,加强数据收集、信息共享和系统性风险监测,强化危机管理框架,增加金融市场基础设施韧性,提升金融科技的监管框架,继续构建更具普惠性的金融部门,健全多层次资本市场体系。

央行纠正IMF报告偏颇 这家英媒却渲染中国危机

此外,据观察者网梳理,针对刚性兑付,11月17日,一行三会联合外管局发布了最新的《规范金融机构资产管理业务的指导意见(征求意见稿)》,要求“金融机构不得以任何形式垫资兑付”,基本上堵死了金融机构变相刚兑的可能性。

财政部则是于上月发布了规范政府和社会资本合作(PPP)相关文件,并表示还将继续出台规范PPP的相关政策。

12月1日,互联网金融风险专项整治、P2P网贷风险专项整治工作领导小组办公室下发“现金贷”规范整顿方案,要求未依法取得经营放贷业务资质,任何组织和个人不得经营放贷业务;并同时明确下一步将展开对网络小额贷款的清理整顿工作。

据银监会主席郭树清此前表示,今年前三季度银行业处置不良资产超9000亿元。党中央和国家为了防范系统性金融风险,已经做了大量工作,具体包括深入整治银行业市场乱象、规范房地产融资行为、严防银行业资金进入房地产、坚决遏制政府隐形债务风险、进一步规范同业理财、继续清理整治网贷及非法贷款、注重加强监管协调等。他还透露,今年按照计划将修订和制定18项有关监督职能制度。

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}, shareInfo: { shareUrl: 'https://m.toutiao.com/group/6496682455733371406/', abstract: '12月6日,国际货币基金组织(IMF)发布《2017年中国金融稳定评估报告》,称“中国金融体系日趋复杂,已经承受了威胁金融稳定的风险。” 对此,中国央行于7日早间在其官网发布回应。
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